Constructivism began in Russia and was an offshoot of collage. Vladimir Tatlin, a Russian artist who lived between 1885 and 1953, was the primary developer of the style, with his abstract compositions that consisted of different kinds of materials and were either hanging or done in relief. Materials used by Tatlin included wire, glass and sheet metal. Tatlin used his methods in architecture and engineering. His monument to the Third International, was a leaning spiral with counter-rotating sections and stood about thirteen hundred feet high.
Pevsner and his brother Gabo also turned to constructivism after they visited Russia in about 1917. The brothers published a manifesto in 1920, that coincided with the large Constructivism exhibition. They believed that movement in space, not volume, was critical to any art work. Because of politics the style died in Russia in 1921.
Constructivist artists expressed themselves in the design of furniture, theater and typography rather than in the fields of painting and sculpture. Architecture and decoration have both been influenced by the Constructivist theories and methods that have also been used by artists in abstract sculpture using various plastics and welding.