The architect Walter Gropius formed the Bauhaus School in 1915 in Weimar, Germany. He combined the Art Academy and the Polytechnic School at the invitation of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Gropius succeeded Henry van de Velde as the director of the schools. The purpose of the Bauhaus was to bring together the teaching of the arts in one place and to establish a unity in all artistic endeavors. To accomplish this stated purpose, there were two types of coursework offered at the school. The first was in the area of learning about the materials used in art; the second was the teaching of theory and form. Architecture was the last course taught to students before they received diplomas.
The Bauhaus, while in Weimar, employed exemplary painters and artists as its teachers, such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. Klee's courses covered theory, tapestry and painting on glass. He outlined his techniques in, "Pedagogical Sketchbook", written in 1925. Kandinsky taught theory, composition and mural painting. The courses taught by Schlemmer and Moholy-Nagy included metalworking, plastic crafts, theater and ballet design, photography, typography and advertising, among others. The Bauhaus moved to Dessau, Germany in 1925, where it remained until it moved again to Berlin in 1932. The Nazis closed the Bauhaus the following year in 1933.
The first exhibition of the Bauhaus, held in 1923, was quite popular. In spite of its popularity, the school closed after conservatives objected. Gropius and his followers designed the new Bauhaus in Dressau. The group of buildings were remarkable in their design of glass and reinforced concrete. Marcel Breuer, Herbert Bayer, Josef Albers and Joost Schmidt, former students of the Bauhaus, taught combined courses there. The experimentation in art and various industrial designs are still in use. Gropius resigned as director of the Bauhaus in 1928 to devote more time to his individual works and Hannes Meyer took his place. Meyer resigned two years later. Mies van der Rohe was the next director for a short period. The school moved to Berlin and closed. Gropius and Feininger emigrated to the United States in 1937 and achieved success in there chosen fields. Shortly thereafter, Moholy-Nagy also emigrated to the U.S. and opened a new Bauhaus in Chicago. He directed it until his death in 1946. There were two retrospective exhibitions put on by the school: one in New York in 1938 and the other in Munich in 1950.
The Bauhaus represents the most comprehensive and famed school of the arts in the world. The Bauhaus' influence is still being felt in the world of art today and will no doubt continue to be influential in the future.