An assemblage was the natural child of the Cubist's collages. The term refers to a group of non-art materials that were either natural or manufactured that the artists used for his work. The artist assembled Marcel Duchamp's "non-creations" himself. Others of these needed no assembly. An example of the latter is Duchamp's "Bottlerack", done in 1914 and now in Paris as part of Man Ray's collection.
Other artists using assemblage include the Americans Louise Nevelson, and Robert Rauchenberg. Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock did early Abstract Expressionist works in New York. Some American sculptors, such as Chamberlain and Stankiewicz, also used assemblage in their works. Some artists used many different materials, including newspaper bits, keys, glass, cigarette butts and so forth. Edward Kienholz was born in 1927. In the 1960s his work reached the peak of assemblage.