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Proportion
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Proportion is defined as the relationship between objects' parts to the whole object. It is most often defined as the relationship between various parts of the human body to the whole body. Since at least the first century A.D. artists have been concerned with developing a mathematical relationship between parts of the body to the whole at that time, Vitruvius wrote an architectural treatise. As a result of that treatise, both Leonardo da Vinci and Durer were influenced to spend a great deal of their time in study of proportion. The human body is usually as tall as seven to seven and one half times the height of the head. Also, the total height of a human being is very close to the width of outstretched arms.

However, in Ideal Art, the practice has been to make the height of the body the same as the total width of the arms outstretched and making the body elongated enough so that the height winds up being eight heads rather than seven to seven and one half. By making these adjustments, the classical artist could then divide the body in half at the groin, the legs in half at the knees and so forth.

 
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