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PRB (Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood)
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The English artists William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais held discussions in 1848 that led to the formation of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. The purpose of the original group, that also included Dante Gabriel, was to use the theories and methods that artists used before Raphael. The artists William Rossetti, James Collinson, Thomas Woolner and the critic Frederick George Stephens joined the group fairly soon after it was formed. Hunt and Millais thought that Raphael used over-inflated forms, expressed too much sentiment and received more praise than he deserved. They were not very familiar with the work of the artists prior to Raphael, believing that the Roman and Bolognese painting of the seventeenth century lacked sensitivity. The PRB was involved in literary circles from its beginning, publishing a periodical called "The Germ". At their first meeting, the members studied a group of engravings that had been done by Giovanni Paolo Lasinio. The members also liked the work of the Italian fifteenth century painter Benozzo Gozzoli.

The letters "P.R.B." first appeared after the signature of Rossetti on a painting entitled "Girlhood of Mary Virgin", that was done in 1849 and is now part of the collection the Tate Gallery in London. Rossetti also encouraged the group to be heavily Catholic in their subject matter. Although the group was criticized by many art critics, the Victorian art critic John Ruskin received them very enthusiastically. The group was somewhat successful due to Ruskin's reputation in art criticism circles. They disbanded in 1852, only four years after they were formed.

 
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