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Miniature
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Miniature is the term used most often for small portraits, although it can refer to other small paintings. In the 16th century, Hilliard and Oliver were the most well-known of the miniature painters. Miniature painting was derived from manuscript illumination in that the flesh color was placed on vellum or playing cards. The seventeenth century artists such as Cooper further developed the miniature into direct oil painting on material such as metal.

The eighteenth century saw another development in the concept with the introduction of ivory as a ground. Because of the ivory's natural white coloring, transparent watercolors could be used, thus revolutionizing the painting of miniatures.

 
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